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A History of Primate Experimentation at the University of Wisconsin, Madison

The tradition lives on, 1997-present.

1997 Joseph Kemnitz appointed acting director upon John Hearn’s hurried retreat.

One of Kemnitz’s first tasks was to deal with the Vilas Monkey scandal. (His eventual elimination of the approximately 150 monkeys at the Henry Vilas Zoo is rewarded with a permanent appointment to the directorship.)

1997 Champ JE, Binkley N, Havighurst T, Colman RJ, Kemnitz JW, Roecker EB. The effect of advancing age on bone mineral content of female rhesus monkeys.

1997 Hadfield RM, Yudkin PL, Coe CL, Scheffler J, Uno H, Barlow DH, Kemnitz JW, Kennedy SH. Risk factors for endometriosis in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta): a case-control study.

1997 Ramsey JJ, Roecker EB, Weindruch R, Kemnitz JW. Energy expenditure of adult male rhesus monkeys during the first 30 mo of dietary restriction.

1998 Uno H, Alsum P, Zimbric ML, Houser WD, Thomson JA, Kemnitz JW. Colon cancer in aged captive rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

1998 Ramsey JJ, Colman RJ, Swick AG, Kemnitz JW. Energy expenditure, body composition, and glucose metabolism in lean and obese rhesus monkeys treated with ephedrine and caffeine.

1998 Colman RJ, Roecker EB, Ramsey JJ, Kemnitz JW. The effect of dietary restriction on body composition in adult male and female rhesus macaques.

1998 Ramsey JJ, Kemnitz JW, Colman RJ, Cunningham D, Swick AG. Different central and peripheral responses to leptin in rhesus monkeys: brain transport may be limited.

1998 Edwards IJ, Rudel LL, Terry JG, Kemnitz JW, Weindruch R, Cefalu WT. Caloric restriction in rhesus monkeys reduces low density lipoprotein interaction with arterial proteoglycans.

1999 Colman RJ, Lane MA, Binkley N, Wegner FH, Kemnitz JW. Skeletal effects of aging in male rhesus monkeys.

1999 Colman RJ, Hudson JC, Barden HS, Kemnitz JW. A comparison of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and somatometrics for determining body fat in rhesus macaques.

1999 Schroederus KM, Gresl TA, Kemnitz JW. Reduced water intake but normal response to acute water deprivation in elderly rhesus monkeys.

1999 Colman RJ, Ramsey JJ, Roecker EB, Havighurst T, Hudson JC, Kemnitz JW. Body fat distribution with long-term dietary restriction in adult male rhesus macaques.

1999 : Colman RJ, Kemnitz JW, Lane MA, Abbott DH, Binkley N. Skeletal effects of aging and menopausal status in female rhesus macaques.

1999 Cefalu WT, Wagner JD, Bell-Farrow AD, Edwards IJ, Terry JG, Weindruch R, Kemnitz JW. Influence of caloric restriction on the development of atherosclerosis in nonhuman primates: progress to date.

2000 Lane MA, Tilmont EM, De Angelis H, Handy A, Ingram DK, Kemnitz JW, Roth GS. Short-term calorie restriction improves disease-related markers in older male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

2000 Gazdag AC, Sullivan S, Kemnitz JW, Cartee GD. Effect of long-term caloric restriction on GLUT4, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase p85 subunit, and insulin receptor substrate-1 protein levels in rhesus monkey skeletal muscle.

2000 Eisner JR, Dumesic DA, Kemnitz JW, Abbott DH. Timing of prenatal androgen excess determines differential impairment in insulin secretion and action in adult female rhesus monkeys.

2000 Ramsey JJ, Laatsch JL, Kemnitz JW. Age and gender differences in body composition, energy expenditure, and glucoregulation of adult rhesus monkeys.

2000 Cefalu WT, Terry JG, Thomas MJ, Morgan TM, Edwards IJ, Rudel LL, Kemnitz JW, Weindruch R. In vitro oxidation of low-density lipoprotein in two species of nonhuman primates subjected to caloric restriction.

2000 Ramsey JJ, Colman RJ, Binkley NC, Christensen JD, Gresl TA, Kemnitz JW, Weindruch R. Dietary restriction and aging in rhesus monkeys: the University of Wisconsin study.

2000 Kemnitz JW, Roecker EB, Haffa AL, Pinheiro J, Kurzman I, Ramsey JJ, MacEwen EG. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentrations across the life span of laboratory-housed rhesus monkeys.

2001 Hadfield RM, Pullen JG, Davies KF, Wolfensohn SE, Kemnitz JW, Weeks DE, Bennett ST, Kennedy SH. Toward developing a genome-wide microsatellite marker set for linkage analysis in the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta): identification of 76 polymorphic markers.

2001 Smucny DA, Allison DB, Ingram DK, Roth GS, Kemnitz JW, Kohama SG, Lane MA; Primate Aging Database Working Group. Changes in blood chemistry and hematology variables during aging in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

2001 Gresl TA, Colman RJ, Roecker EB, Havighurst TC, Huang Z, Allison DB, Bergman RN, Kemnitz JW. Dietary restriction and glucose regulation in aging rhesus monkeys: a follow-up report at 8.5 yr.

2001 Edwards IJ, Rudel LL, Terry JG, Kemnitz JW, Weindruch R, Zaccaro DJ, Cefalu WT. Caloric restriction lowers plasma lipoprotein (a) in male but not female rhesus monkeys.

2001 Kemnitz pleads guilty/no contest and pays $100 fine for transporting a child between the ages of 4 and 8 years without a seatbelt.

2002 Kemnitz JW, Sapolsky RM, Altmann J, Muruthi P, Mott GE, Stefanick ML. Effects of food availability on serum insulin and lipid concentrations in free-ranging baboons.

2002 Fowler CG, Torre P 3rd, Kemnitz JW. Effects of caloric restriction and aging on the auditory function of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): The University of Wisconsin Study.

2002 Dhurandhar NV, Whigham LD, Abbott DH, Schultz-Darken NJ, Israel BA, Bradley SM, Kemnitz JW, Allison DB, Atkinson RL. Human adenovirus Ad-36 promotes weight gain in male rhesus and marmoset monkeys.

2002 Khorram O, Colman RJ, Kemnitz JW, Magness RR, Zhang J, Yao Z, Keller ET. The influence of sex hormones on circulating nitric oxide (NOx) levels in rhesus monkeys (Macaca Mulatta).

2002 Khorram O, Colman RJ, Kemnitz JW, Magness RR, Zhang J, Yao Z, Keller ET. The influence of sex hormones on circulating nitric oxide (NOx) levels in rhesus monkeys (Macaca Mulatta).

2003 Eisner JR, Dumesic DA, Kemnitz JW, Colman RJ, Abbott DH. Increased adiposity in female rhesus monkeys exposed to androgen excess during early gestation.

2003 Gresl TA, Colman RJ, Havighurst TC, Byerley LO, Allison DB, Schoeller DA, Kemnitz JW. Insulin sensitivity and glucose effectiveness from three minimal models: effects of energy restriction and body fat in adult male rhesus monkeys.

2003 Gresl TA, Colman RJ, Havighurst TC, Allison DB, Schoeller DA, Kemnitz JW. Dietary restriction and beta-cell sensitivity to glucose in adult male rhesus monkeys.

2004 Zondervan KT, Weeks DE, Colman R, Cardon LR, Hadfield R, Schleffler J, Trainor AG, Coe CL, Kemnitz JW, Kennedy SH. Familial aggregation of endometriosis in a large pedigree of rhesus macaques.

August 6, 2004 The Isthmus publishes Monkey Business: An Inside Look which describes some experimental procedures underway in WPRC labs.

2004 Smucny DA, Allison DB, Ingram DK, Roth GS, Kemnitz JW, Kohama SG, Lane MA, Black A. Changes in blood chemistry and hematology variables during aging in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

2004 Bruns CM, Baum ST, Colman RJ, Eisner JR, Kemnitz JW, Weindruch R, Abbott DH. Insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion in prenatally androgenized male rhesus monkeys.

2005 Ramsey JJ, Kemnitz JW, Newton W, Hagopian K, Patterson TA, Swick AG. Food intake in rhesus monkeys following central administration of orexins.

2005 Researchers at University of California, Los Angeles publish paper* debunking caloric restriction. MedPage Today describes theory as “fringe fad,” publishes online advice to primary care physicians:

MedPage Today Action Points:

Advise patients there are no scientific data suggesting that severe caloric restriction in humans will lead to a longer life. There are some data supporting this theory in small animals [rodents, fish, cockroaches, ticks, water fleas, spiders, mollusks and protozoa.]

Caution patients that severe caloric restriction may adversely affect their fertility and may also make them more vulnerable to infection and disease.

* Phelan JP, Rose MR. Why dietary restriction substantially increases longevity in animal models but won't in humans. Ageing Res Rev. 2005


Madison's Hidden Monkeys is a joint project of the
Alliance for Animals and the
Primate Freedom Project