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A History of Primate Experimentation at the University of Wisconsin, Madison

Robert Goy: Curing homosexuality, 1971-1989.

1971 Robert Goy replaces Harlow as WPRC director.

1972 Goy RW, Phoenix CH. The effects of testosterone propionate administered before birth on the development of behavior in genetic female rhesus monkeys.

1972 Goy RW, Resko JA. Gonadal hormones and behavior of normal and pseudohermaphroditic nonhuman female primates.

1972 Bullock DW, Paris CA, Goy RW. Sexual behaviour, swelling of the sex skin and plasma progesterone in the pigtail macaque.

1973 Eaton GG, Goy RW, Phoenix CH. Effects of testosterone treatment in adulthood on sexual behaviour of female pseudohermaphrodite rhesus monkeys.

1973 Slob AK, Goy RW, Van der Werff ten Bosch. Sex differences in growth of guinea-pigs and their modification by neonatal gonadectomy and prenatally administered androgen.

1973 Phoenix CH, Slob AK, Goy RW. Effects of castration and replacement therapy on sexual behavior of adult male rhesuses.

1974 Goy RW, Wallen K, Goldfoot DA. Social factors affecting the development of mounting behavior in male rhesus monkeys.

1975 Slob AK, Goy RW, Wiegand SJ, Scheffler G. Proceedings: Gonadal hormones and behaviour in the stumptail macaque (Macaca arctoides) under laboratory conditions: a preliminary report.

1975 Goy RW, Goldfoot DA. Neuroendocrinology: animal models and problems of human sexuality.

1975 Czaja JA, Eisele SG, Goy RW. Cyclical changes in the sexual skin of female rhesus: relationships to mating behavior and sucessful artificial insemination.

1975 Resko JA, Koering MJ, Goy RW, Phoenix CH. Preovulatory progestins: Observation on their source in rhesus monkeys.

1975 Robinson JA, Scheffler G, Eisele SG, Goy RW. Effects of age and season on sexual behavior and plasma testosterone and dihydrotestosterone concentrations of laboratory-housed male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

1975 Czaja JA, Goy RW. Ovarian hormones and food intake in female guinea pigs and rhesus monkeys.

1976 Weisbard C, Goy RW. Effect of parturition and group composition on competitive drinking order in stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides).

1976 Bielert C, Czaja JA, Eisele S, Scheffler G, Robinson JA, Goy RW. Mating in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) after conception and its relationship to oestradiol and progesterone levels throughout pregnancy.

1976 Goldfoot DA, Kravetz MA, Goy RW, Freeman SK. Lack of effect of vaginal lavages and aliphatic acids on ejaculatory responses in rhesus monkeys: behavioral and chemical analyses.

1977 Czaja JA, Robinson JA, Eisele SG, Scheffler G, Goy RW. Relationship between sexual skin colour of female rhesus monkeys and midcycle plasma levels of oestradiol and progesterone.

1977 Wilen R, Goy RW, Resko JA, Naftolin F. Pubertal body weight and growth in the female rhesus pseudohermaphrodite.

1977 Wallen K, Goy RW. Effects of estradiol benzoate, estrone, and propionates of testosterone or dihydrotestosterone on sexual and related behaviors of ovariectomized Rhesus monkeys.

1978 Slimp JC, Hart BL, Goy RW. Heterosexual, autosexual and social behavior of adult male rhesus monkeys with medial preoptic-anterior hypothalamic lesions.

1978 : Goy RW. Sexual compatibility in rhesus monkeys: predicting sexual performance of oppositely sexed pairs of adults.

1978 Slob AK, Wiegand SJ, Goy RW, Robinson JA. Heterosexual interactions in laboratory-housed stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides): observations during the menstrual cycle and after ovariectomy.

1979 Goy RW, Wallen K. Experiential variables influencing play, foot-clasp mounting and adult sexual competence in male rhesus monkeys.

1980 Holman SD, Goy RW. Behavioral and mammary responses of adult female rhesus to strange infants.

1980 Terasawa E, Rodriguez-Sierra JF, Dierschke DJ, Bridson WE, Goy RW. Positive feedback effect of progesterone on luteinizing hormone (LH) release in cyclic female rhesus monkeys: LH response occurs in two phases.

1981 Wallen K, Goldfoot DA, Goy RW. Peer and maternal influences on the expression of foot-clasp mounting by juvenile male rhesus monkeys.

1982 Sholl SA, Goy RW, Uno H. Differences in brain uptake and metabolism of testosterone in gonadectomized, adrenalectomized male and female rhesus monkeys.

1982 Resko JA, Goy RW, Robinson JA, Norman RL. The pubescent rhesus monkey: some characteristics of the menstrual cycle.

A 1982 or 1983 criticism of the university's use of primates from the Mobilization for Animals that comments on Goy's work.

1983 French JA, Abbott DH, Scheffler G, Robinson JA, Goy RW. Cyclic excretion of urinary oestrogens in female tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).

1983 Pomerantz SM, Goy RW. Proceptive behavior of female rhesus monkeys during tests with tethered males.

1983 National protest against primate research. 3500 attend rally at WPRC.

1984 Abbott DH, Holman SD, Berman M, Neff DA, Goy RW. Effects of opiate antagonists on hormones and behavior of male and female rhesus monkeys.

1984 Goldfoot DA, Wallen K, Neff DA, McBrair MC, Goy RW. Social influence on the display of sexually dimorphic behavior in rhesus monkeys: isosexual rearing.

1985 Pomerantz SM, Fox TO, Sholl SA, Vito CC, Goy RW. Androgen and estrogen receptors in fetal rhesus monkey brain and anterior pituitary.

1985 Pomerantz SM, Roy MM, Thornton JE, Goy RW. Expression of adult female patterns of sexual behavior by male, female, and pseudohermaphroditic female rhesus monkeys.

In general, by using the tethered male procedure, we feel we were able to more effectively limit the stimulus male's influence on the behavior of the experimental animals. In so doing, the effect of prenatal androgen exposure on defeminization of female proceptive behavior was more readily apparent.

1986 Reinhardt V, Reinhardt A, Bercovitch FB, Goy RW. Does intermale mounting function as a dominance demonstration in rhesus monkeys?

1986 Thornton J, Goy RW. Female-typical sexual behavior of rhesus and defeminization by androgens given prenatally.

1986 Pomerantz SM, Goy RW, Roy MM. Expression of male-typical behavior in adult female pseudohermaphroditic rhesus: comparisons with normal males and neonatally gonadectomized males and females.

1988 Goy RW, Kraemer G, Goldfoot D. Biological influences on grooming in nonhuman primates.

1988 Pomerantz SM, Roy MM, Goy RW. Social and hormonal influences on behavior of adult male, female, and pseudohermaphroditic rhesus monkeys.

1988 Bercovitch FB, Roy MM, Sladky KK, Goy RW. The effects of isosexual rearing on adult sexual behavior in captive male rhesus macaques.

1988 Kemnitz JW, Sladky KK, Flitsch TJ, Pomerantz SM, Goy RW. Androgenic influences on body size and composition of adult rhesus monkeys.

1988 Goy RW, Bercovitch FB, McBrair MC. Behavioral masculinization is independent of genital masculinization in prenatally androgenized female rhesus macaques.

Vilas Zoo monkey house increasingly spray-painted with anti-vivisection slogans when public begins to understand that the monkeys there are being harvested for use in WPRC labs.

1989 Sholl SA, Goy RW, Kim KL. 5 alpha-reductase, aromatase, and androgen receptor levels in the monkey brain during fetal development.

1989 Kemnitz JW, Goy RW, Flitsch TJ, Lohmiller JJ, Robinson JA. Obesity in male and female rhesus monkeys: fat distribution, glucoregulation, and serum androgen levels.

1989 Goy pens letter to Dane County officials regarding Vilas Zoo facility:


June 15, 1989

Dr. David Hall
Director, Vilas Park Zoo
702 S. Randall Ave.
Madison, WI 53715

Dear Dr. Hall:

I want to inform you of the Primate Center's policy regarding our monkeys that reside at the Vilas Park Zoo in a building we refer to as the "WRPRC Vilas Park Zoo Facility". This building was constructed with funds provided by the federal government to the Primate Center. Thus, despite its somewhat ambiguous designation, the facility is owned and operated by us and, accordingly, the University of Wisconsin.

More than a few of the monkeys housed at this facility have lived their entire lives there, and animals are removed from their natal groups only to prevent overcrowding. The groups have been established for the principal purpose of studying social organization and social dynamics in stable primate societies. Accordingly, on those infrequent occasions when animals are removed from a group, the removal is guided by procedures aimed at ensuring the least disruption of the group and at preserving social stability.

The research performed on troops housed at the zoo is purely observational in nature. As a matter of policy, no invasive physiological studies are carried out on these animals. In addition, the Center's policy regarding animals removed from these established groups ensures that they will not be used in studies at our facility involving invasive experimental procedures. Such animals will be assigned to the Center's non-experimental breeding colony, where they are exempt from experimental use.

This policy on the uses of monkeys at the WRPRC Vilas Park Zoo facility has the endorsement of my administrative council as well as the staff veterinarians and animal care supervisors responsible for the care and humane use of all Center animals. As evidence of this, their signatures are also affixed.

Let me take this opportunity to point out that the Center has long taken a leadership role in the humane treatment of research animals. Our housing meets or exceeds all applicable standards. Our 12-person animal care staff has an average length of nearly 20 years of dedicated service to the Center and its animals. In addition, our chief veterinarian is one of just a handful of veterinarians in the state to be certified as a Diplomat of the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, and our assistant veterinarian has developed a highly regarded program of pairing caged monkeys to enhance their psychological well-being.

Yours Truly,

Robert W. Goy, Director

Administrative Council

William E. Bridson
Associate Director

Robert K. Watson,
Assistant Director

Animal Care Unit

Wallace D. House
Chief Veterinarian

Viktor Reinhardt
Assistant Veterinarian

Stephen G. Eisele
Breeding Supervisor

Milford Urben
Vilas Park Zoo Facility Supervisor

WPRC resumes taking monkeys from zoo almost immediately, in secret.

October 12: Female rhesus monkey steamed to death in cage washer. Officials claim that steps will be taken to see that this never happens again. (Whoops.)

1989 Goy resigns and is replaced as director by John P. Hearn.

1989 American Medical Association publishes white paper: “Animal Research Action Plan” detailing strategy to derail animal rights movement.

1996 Goy RW, Deputte BL. The effects of diethylstilbestrol (DES) before birth on the development of masculine behavior in juvenile female rhesus monkeys.

1997 Dumesic DA, Abbott DH, Eisner JR, Goy RW. Prenatal exposure of female rhesus monkeys to testosterone propionate increases serum luteinizing hormone levels in adulthood.

January 14, 1999 Goy dies.

The primate vivisection community's tribute to Goy.


Madison's Hidden Monkeys is a joint project of the
Alliance for Animals and the
Primate Freedom Project